Common Carp with gill flap birth defect, a good visual example of gills. Image: Wikipedia. More information: Ions first: Na+ uptake shifts from the skin to the gills before O2 uptake in developing rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.1545 © 2009 PhysOrg.com Citation: Ion exchange may be most important driver of gill development in fish (2010, January 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-01-ion-exchange-important-driver-gill.html (PhysOrg.com) — A long-standing theory is that the first function of fish gills was to allow fish to breathe, but new research is casting doubt on the idea that this activity developed first. Research links evolution of fins and limbs with that of gills Explore further A research team from the University of British Columbia in Canada studied the development of gills in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to find out which function of the gills appeared first: oxygen uptake or ion exchange. Their experiments suggest that gills were involved in ion exchange first, which further suggests this might have been the first activity to evolve. The experiments provide the first direct physiological evidence to support what is known as the ionoregulatory hypothesis.The research team placed each larva in a type of compartmentalized plastic box called a flux chamber, which had one compartment for the head and gills, and another for the tail end, and then measured oxygen and ion levels (sodium and potassium) at both ends. By 15-16 days after hatching, the gills were exchanging more ions than the tail, but it took another 8-13 days before the gills were exchanging more oxygen. Ions (charged chemical particles) are necessary for the cells to function, but they can become toxic if their concentration in the blood is too high. One of the researchers, Ms Clarice Fu, said that the pressures affecting larvae were similar to evolutionary pressures, which is why scientists often study the development of larvae to investigate evolution. She said that some of the pressures include an greater body size, more active lifestyle, and thicker skin. As the larvae grew the pressures (such as the thickening skin) drove ion exchange to the gills before they started to use the gills for breathing, which Fu said indicates the same thing may have occurred during the evolution of the fish: those individuals with gills capable of ion exchange would have a better chance of survival than those that did not, or those that retained a thinner skin for ion uptake.The research paper is published online in this week’s edition of the Royal Society journal Proceedings B. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Elephant legs are much bendier than Shakespeare thought (PhysOrg.com) — Sometimes it seems, nature finds it must resort to some trickery to respond appropriately to changing conditions. Take the elephant, for example. Way back in time, say fifty million years ago, the hulking beasts spent most of their time standing in water, much like hippos do today. But then, over the next ten million years or so, they moved out of the water and began foraging on land. The problem with this though, was that walking on land meant forcing the feet to take up a lot more of the load. Elephants are really heavy after all. African Bush Elephant in Mikumi National Park, Tanzania. Taken by Oliver Wright, via Wikipedia. Journal information: Science So, in response, according to John Hutchinson and his colleagues, as they write in their study published in Science, the big animals began walking on tiptoe, which for the largest of the group meant developing some means of extra support in the back of the foot. So, nature stepped up by causing one of the bones in the foot that normally are used in a supporting role, to evolve to form a sort of toe that works in effect, like a heel on a lady’s shoe.Hutchinson and his team explain that the reason this little bit of knowledge has been overlooked for so long is twofold. The first is because the bone starts out as cartilage and only grows into regular hardened bone after many years as an adult. The second reason is because the toe is encased in so much hard foot fat that it’s almost impossible to see how things actually work on a living animal. They point out that such was the thinking that the sixth toe was deemed to offer so little of value that museum workers routinely snipped it off and tossed it away when preparing elephant skeletons for exhibit. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Explore further Play Evolution of manus anatomy in Proboscidea. Video: John R. Hutchinson To find out what is really going on with elephant feet, Hutchinson and his team performed autopsies and did CT scans on them, some with weights added to mimic how they should behave under the natural weight of their original owner. In so doing, they discovered that as an animal ages over a several year period, the bone-like cartilage becomes harder and harder, until eventually becoming true bone. It’s at that point that the toe becomes useful as a means of assisting in helping the giant beast stand and walk.What’s most interesting the team says, is that the sixth toe evolved from a sesamoid, a type of bone normally used to support other bones, rather than as a true sixth toe, in much the same way panda’s have evolved a thumb-like appendage to help them eat bamboo. Play Foot anatomy of an extant elephant (Elephas maximus). Video: John R. Hutchinson Hutchinson has become an expert on elephant feet and as such is now a sort of go-to guy for zoos with elephants with feet problems (which is apparently quite common); so much so that when captive elephants die in zoos the zookeepers quite often lop off the feet and send them to him for study. Because of this he now has what is likely the largest collection of frozen elephant feet in the world with some seventy specimens sitting in various freezers. Citation: Researchers show elephants really do have a sixth toe (2011, December 23) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-12-elephants-sixth-toe.html More information: From Flat Foot to Fat Foot: Structure, Ontogeny, Function, and Evolution of Elephant “Sixth Toes” Science 23 December 2011: Vol. 334 no. 6063 pp. 1699-1703. DOI: 10.1126/science.1211437ABSTRACTSeveral groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures (“predigits”), such as pandas’ “thumbs.” Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively “flat-footed” (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived “tip-toed” (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture. © 2011 PhysOrg.com PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
British government to require biofuels (Phys.org)—Cool Planet Energy Systems has announced a projected production cost for its biofuel, made from corn cobs and stover (dried stalks and leaves of cereal crops), of just $1.50 per gallon sans the benefit of government subsidies. Company representatives also said they have completed a successful test trial of a newly developed process for converting feed stock to fuel, and that Google has been field testing the results with fleet vehicles. The company has a test facility in Camarillo, CA that creates fuel by pressing feedstock between plates under high pressure, and then placing the plates in a device called a fractionator. This process results in a release of a gas which is then captured and then converted, using catalysts, to a liquid. The resultant fuel is mixed with gasoline. In tests thus far, the company has used a mixture composed of 5 percent biofuel and 95 percent gasoline. Google fleet vehicles—part of its GRide on-demand campus vehicle program—have traveled 2,400 miles on this mixture to-date.In separate testing, Cool Planet fueled one car with the biofuel mixture and a control car with 100 percent gasoline and found that the test-fueled car met the Low Carbon Fuel Standard California has set for 2020. They also ran both cars though five smog tests and found no measurable differences between them. The company claims the new biofuel is actually carbon negative because a byproduct of the production process is activated carbon, which can be used as a soil enhancer. They also note that their process doesn’t require the use of any food crops.Cool Planet says the new biofuel can be made in a manufacturing facility just one-hundredth the size of traditional gasoline refineries. These micro-refineries—which can reportedly produce 10 million gallons of fuel per year—are potentially transportable. This capability would allow for on-site production, thereby removing the environmental impact of shipping from a central production facility. Because of the fuel’s early success so far, Cool Planet has attracted investors such as BP, Google Ventures, General Electric, the Constellation Energy division of Exelon, NRG and ConocoPhillips. © 2012 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: ‘Cool Planet’ projects biofuel-production cost of $1.50 per gallon (2012, October 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-cool-planet-biofuel-production-gallon.html Explore further
An artist’s concept for a full scale Slingatron space launcher about 200-300 meters in diameter. The spiral track is mounted on support pylons which contain drive motors and counterweight flywheels. Payload assemblies are prepared for launch nearby. A Kickstarter project features Slingatron, the work of a seasoned team of scientists as a way to put cargo into orbit. The Slingatron is a mechanical, hypervelocity mass accelerator. The inventor of the Slingatron is Dr. Derek A. Tidman, author of the book, “SLINGATRON – A Mechanical Hypervelocity Mass Accelerator.” The book sets forth the concept and now Hyper V Technologies of Chantilly, Virginia, the project leaders, are to put the Tidman concept into action. © 2013 Phys.org Explore further KickSat co-creator, team launches new ‘Pocket Spacecraft’ project on Kickstarter More information: www.kickstarter.com/projects/3 … -a-railroad-to-space Citation: Slingatron vision is to launch payloads into orbit (2013, July 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-07-slingatron-vision-payloads-orbit.html Tidman is part of the Hyper V Technologies team presenting the Kickstarter project. According to his biographical notes, he first came to the U.S. as an assistant professor at the Fermi Institute for Nuclear Studies, University of Chicago. In reviewing the book, Daniel Spicer, senior scientist, Emeritus, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, commented that “the Slingatron is a highly imaginative and surprisingly simple approach to accelerate large masses to hypervelocity using just off-the-shelf technology and good old-fashioned classical Newtonian mechanics.”A generous display of descriptions on how it works is on the Kickstarter page. The Slingatron technology can be incrementally grown in performance and size to launch payloads into orbit. The Kickstarter project goal is to build and demonstrate a modular Slingatron to launch, in the team’s laboratory, a 1/4 pound payload to 1 kilometer/sec. That is about 2,237 mph. If launched straight up at that speed, a payload would reach an altitude of about 51 km, neglecting air resistance, they said.They have turned to Kickstarter for the next step in making Slingatron a reality and that next stage will give them technical information, practical experience, and cost data on what will be required to build a full-scale Slingatron orbital launch system in the future. They said they plan to use Kickstarter funds to build a modular, horizontal Slingatron device that is five meters (16.4 feet) in diameter and capable of gyrating at 40 to 60 cycles per second (cps).”This Slingatron will be designed to be able to launch a 0.454 kg (1 lb) payload at a velocity of one kilometer per second, but will only be operated with 1/4 lb payloads for the demo. It will take us approximately six months to build and test the demo device.”The project will only be funded if at least $250,000 is pledged by Aug 22. They are inviting pledges from one dollar to $10,000 and above. At the time of this writing they raised $4,842 with 28 days to go.HyperV Technologies is focused on producing “the world’s first commercially viable fusion reactor technology.” Their research efforts are on the development of a “controlled hot fusion reactor that is scalable to provide from 100 MW to 2,000 MW of clean baseload electric power.” This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
(Phys.org)—An international team of astronomers reports the discovery of a Neptune-mass exoplanet with a density comparable to Earth’s. According to the research, the newly detected alien world, designated EPIC212521166 b, is the most massive planet with a sub-Neptune radius found to date. A paper detailing the finding was published online on May 13 in a pre-print version on arXiv.org. Earth-like planet may exist in a nearby star system © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. This artist’s concept depicts a planetary system. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech The team, led by Hugh Osborn of the University of Warwick, U.K., has analyzed the data provided by NASA’s Kepler spacecraft prolonged mission, known as K2, in order to look for possible planets orbiting the star EPIC212521166. It is an 8 billion-year-old, metal-poor dwarf star with a mass of slightly more than 0.7 solar masses, located some 380 light years away. The K2 mission identified this celestial body as a strong candidate for hosting planets.Osborn and his colleagues performed follow-up radial velocity observations of EPIC212521166 to confirm the presence of exoplanets around it. For their observations, conducted in March 2016, they used the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) spectrograph, mounted on the 3.6 m telescope at the European Southern Observatory’s (ESO) La Silla observatory in Chile.”We present the detection of a sub-Neptune radius planet around the K field dwarf EPIC212521166 from K2 photometry and the confirmation and mass measurement of this planet with HARPS radial velocities,” the researchers wrote in the paper.According to the study, EPIC212521166 b orbits its parent star approximately every 14 days. The planet has a mass of 18.3 Earth masses and radius of about 2.6 Earth radii, which makes it the most massive exoplanet with a sub-Neptune radius detected so far.With a density of 5.7 g/cm3, the planet is expected to have a large rocky core. The researchers computed that the core must be composed mostly of enstatite (70 percent) and iron (30 percent). They also argue that the planet could have significant water content and a hydrogen-helium atmosphere.”A two-layer iron-silicate composition model is unable to explain the density of EPIC212521166 b. Instead, either low-density volatiles such as water, an H-He atmosphere, or a combination of both must be present,” the paper reads.The scientists emphasized that the unusual density of this planet suggests that mass-radius relations should be used with extreme caution in the regime between terrestrial planets and gas giants.The research also indicates that the evaporation process was unlikely the cause of such a high observed density of EPIC212521166 b. Thus, the planet likely formed dense, potentially after the gas disc has been photoevaporated. The scientists suggest that the planet likely disc-migrated to its current position; however, the lack of a thick hydrogen atmosphere doesn’t support this theory.The team concluded that the planet’s migration and the absence of significant hydrogen atmosphere could be explained by giant impacts and accretion between a former compact multiplanet system. “This hypothesis also supports the interpretation of an old age for this system, over which time the likelihood of dynamical instability is increased,” the astronomers noted.The EPIC212521166 system could also host other exoplanets. The team has searched for potential other transiting planets in this system but found no significant signal so far. More information: EPIC212521166 b: a Neptune-mass planet with Earth-like density, arXiv:1605.04291 [astro-ph.EP] arxiv.org/abs/1605.04291AbstractWe report the discovery of the exoplanet EPIC212521166 b from K2 photometry orbiting on a 13.8637d period around an old, metal-poor K3 dwarf star. A joint analysis of K2 photometry and high-precision RVs from HARPS reveals it to have a radius of 2.6±0.1R⊕ and a mass of 18.3±2.8M⊕, making it the most massive planet with a sub-Neptune radius (i.e. mini-Neptune) yet found. When accounting for compression, the resulting Earth-like density is best fit by a 0.2M⊕ hydrogen atmosphere over an 18M⊕ Earth-like core, although the planet could also have significant water content. At 0.1AU, even taking into account the old stellar age of 8±3 Gyr, the planet is unlikely to have been significantly affected by EUV evaporation or tides. However the planet likely disc-migrated to its current position making the lack of a thick H2 atmosphere puzzling. With a V-band magnitude of 11.9 it is particularly amenable to follow-up observations, making EPIC-1166 b a rare and extremely important planetary system. Citation: Astronomers discover a Neptune-mass alien world with Earth-like density (2016, May 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-05-astronomers-neptune-mass-alien-world-earth-like.html Explore further
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Why are male antlers and horns so large? The researchers note that the trade-off experienced by the male elk goes against the traditional idea that wolves attack the young, weak or ill—males that cast off their antlers early are actually more robust than other males that still retain their rack. This is because the antlers are heavy and thus force the expenditure of a lot of energy—elk without antlers that eat the same amount as other males with antlers become comparatively bigger and stronger. University of Montana researchers Matt Metz and Mark Hebblewhite examine the remains of an elk. Credit: National Park Service photo Citation: Male elk face a trade-off regarding when to drop their antlers (2018, September 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-09-male-elk-trade-off-antlers.html Journal information: Nature Ecology & Evolution Wolves and an elk face off in Yellowstone National Park. Credit: Dan Stahler, National Park Service Credit: CC0 Public Domain More information: Matthew C. Metz et al. Predation shapes the evolutionary traits of cervid weapons, Nature Ecology & Evolution (2018). DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0657-5AbstractSexually selected weapons evolved to maximize the individual reproductive success of males in many polygynous breeding species. Many weapons are also retained outside of reproductive periods for secondary reasons, but the importance of these secondary functions is poorly understood. Here we leveraged a unique opportunity from the predator–prey system in northern Yellowstone National Park, WY, USA to evaluate whether predation by a widespread, coursing predator (wolves) has influenced a specific weapon trait (antler retention time) in their primary cervid prey (elk). Male elk face a trade-off: individuals casting antlers early begin regrowth before other males, resulting in relatively larger antlers the following year, and thus greater reproductive success, as indicated by research with red deer. We show, however, that male elk that cast their antlers early are preferentially hunted and killed by wolves, despite early casters being in better nutritional condition than antlered individuals. Our results run counter to classic expectations of coursing predators preferring poorer-conditioned individuals, and in so doing, reveal an important secondary function for an exaggerated sexually selected weapon—predatory deterrence. We suggest this secondary function played a key evolutionary role in elk; uniquely among North American cervids, they retain their antlers long after they fulfil their primary role in reproduction.Press release A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. has found that male elk face a trade-off regarding the appropriate time to drop their antlers. In their paper published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, the group describes their 13-year study of elk living in Yellowstone National Park—and the wolves that hunt them. Explore further In North America, a type of large red deer known as elk live in many wooded areas across the continent—one of the most prominent of these areas is Yellowstone National Park. Male elk are known for their large rack of antlers, which they shed once each year. Prior research has shown that the main purpose of the antlers is to fight other males for reproductive rights with females. The researchers with this new effort have found that a second purpose is to ward off predators such as wolves. They also found that a timing issue related to antler dropping has led to a trade-off for the male elk.In their long study of the elk living in the park, the researchers found that wolves preferred to attack the elk after they had dropped their antlers—the sharp tines and thick neck muscles together presented a formidable means of defense. But they also found that the males did not drop their antlers at the same time—the earlier a male dropped his antlers, the more time his new set would have to grow, allowing them to grow bigger than other competing males. Dropping their antlers had a major drawback, however—it made those individual members stick out among their peers as a prized target for hungry wolves. It also put other males around them at greater risk. The researchers found that if a group of males had just one antlerless member, it was 10 times more likely to be attacked by wolves. © 2018 Phys.org
Kolkata: There is a possibility of thundershower in some parts of South Bengal districts, as predicted by the weather office.The Regional Meteorological Centre at Alipore said storm and thundershower with strong gusty wind may occur in some parts over South Bengal districts including Bankura, Barddhaman, East Midnapore, Howrah, Hooghly, Nadia, North 24 Parganas, Purulia, South 24 Parganas and West Midnapore districts of West Bengal during the next 24 hours. There may be some cold spell in the city as well. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe city dwellers have been witnessing pre-monsoon rains since a long time now. It may also be mentioned that the month of April has been quite fruitful for the entire city with rains lashing the city from time to time. The month began on a rainy note for both West Bengal as well as Odisha. The people in the city may, however, feel sultry and discomfort during the afternoon. Weather experts predict thunder squall with wind speed exceeding 50 kmph along with lightning. Light to moderate rain is likely affect some parts of Kolkata and adjoining districts. According to an expert, these weather activities can be attributed to a multiple weather system which are affecting the weather of Kolkata. On Sunday, a cyclonic circulation was seen over Sub-Himalayan West Bengal and its adjoining areas. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAn anti-cyclone was also seen over West Central Bay of Bengal which was providing moisture over the region. Along with this, a trough was also seen running from the cyclonic circulation across West Bengal. The trough was extending from Sub-Himalayan West Bengal to Odisha across Gangetic West Bengal.As a result, the city may witness scattered light rains during the next couple of days. The situation will be similar in various South Bengal districts as well. Rains will be accompanied by strong winds, lightning and thunderstorm activities and will occur during the late afternoon hours only like a typical pre-monsoon characteristic. There was, however, a prediction of thundershower that had given a miss to the city till late Monday evening. Many parts of the city remained clouded since Monday afternoon but no major incidents of rains were reported.
Kolkata: ‘MV Kishore’, one of the largest Mini Cape Vessels of its kind with 54,000 MT of coal cargo, built in 2012 was anchored at Sagar for the first time, making Kolkata Port privileged enough to handle such a bulk carrier.”KoPT has entered the league to handle a capesize vessel for the first time. So far, the Port was handling Panamax vessels,” said Vinit Kumar, chairman of Kolkata Port Trust (KoPT).A senior KoPT official said such a mini cape Vessel at Sagar at 9.2 metre draft is a laudable landmark in the history of KoPT, despite its natural constraint being saddled with the responsibility of maintaining such one of the longest and most unpredictable navigational channels in the world. The entire cargo unloading started with two floating cranes and were transported through barges and subsequently handled at the Haldia Floating Barge Jetty, outside the lock gate. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsIt may be mentioned that the KoPT chairman laid great emphasis on transloading operation as it can rake up cargo handling overcoming perennial draft problems that restrict larger vessels from entering through the port jetties. “KoPT is having a constraint of draft in the channel and lock gate operation in the docks. By doing lighterage operation with this vessel, which has a very wide beam and can carry higher parcel load in draft of 9.2 metre, we have overcome the constraint of draft to a great extent,” the official added. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedThe baby cape vessel has brought 54,000 tonne of coal from Indonesia for two corporate importers. Capesize vessels are large dry cargo ships and have a capacity to handle 90,000 to 1,30,000 tonne.It may be mentioned that currently, most of the ships unload two-thirds of cargo at Paradip and one third at Haldia. But, under this trial with the baby cape size vessel, now two-third of cargo has come to Kolkata port.”Target is to offload the entire cargo at KoPT at least during November-March period of the year,” the official said.
Kolkata: The Criminal Investigating Department (CID) has arrested two persons on the charge of running a fake job racket.It was learnt that the duo used to extort money from job applicants posing themselves as CID officials. Kartik Nath and Pujari Basfor, the two accused persons, allegedly took money from several unemployed young people promising them jobs invarious departments.Investigators suspected that the duo took around a few lakh rupees from unemployed youth, promising them jobs. However, they later refused to meet them. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedWhen the victims wanted their money back, the duo repeatedly made false promises.Both the youths are the residents of Jagaddal area of North 24-Parganas.According to CID, the duo allegedly made false promises of providing jobs in various government departments and also inprivate companies.The investigators also said that the accused used to extort money from the people posing themselves as CID officials. They used to threaten people with dire consequences if they do not pay the amount as demanded by the accused. Also Read – Naihati: 10 councillors return to TMC from BJPOn the basis of the complaints lodged by the victims, the police have started a case, which was later handed over to CID for the sake of investigation.The police are trying to know if others are involved in the incident. During interrogation, the CID officials came to know that the duo started this fakejob racket in 2012 and since then, have duped many job seekers.It was also learnt that they introduced themselves as CID officials on the social media.According to a preliminary investigation, many job seekers from North 24-Parganas, particularly from the Barrackpore sub-division were duped by the duo.Some of the victims lodged complaints with the police mentioning the names of the two youths.Police are interrogating the accused in this connection so far. A detailed probe has been initiated.
City football giants Mohun Bagan would file a creditors liquidation case against their principal sponsor United Spirits Limited (USL) for not paying their dues which have now increased to Rs.4.5 crore.Club general secretary Anjan Mitra alleged that USL has not paid a single penny to the club from November 2014 to March 2015.“We had a 10-year agreement from 2013 to 2023 with USL. From November 2014 to March 2015 we have not received the Rs 4.5 crore which is due. Inspite of repeated requests they did not pay much attention. So we have no other option but to take a legal step and file a creditors liquidation case against them in two to three days time,” Mitra told reporters here.